### AP Physics 2 Standards

**AP PHYSICS 2 STANDARDS**

**BIG IDEAS AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES**

**ELECTRIC FORCE, FIELD AND POTENTIAL**

**BIG IDEA 1: Objects and systems have properties such as mass and charge. Systems may have internal structure.**

**1.B.1.1: **I can make claims about natural phenomena based on conservation of electric charge. **[SP 6.4**]

**1.B.1.2: **I can make predictions, using the
conservation of electric charge, about the sign and relative quantity of
net charge of objects or systems after various charging processes,
including conservation of charge in simple circuits. **[SP 6.4, 7.2**]

**1.B.2.2: **I can make a qualitative prediction about
the distribution of positive and negative electric charges within
neutral systems as they undergo various processes. **[SP 6.4, 7.2**]

**1.B.2.3: **I can challenge claims that polarization of electric charge or separation of charge must result in a net charge on the object. **[SP6.1**]

**1.B.3.1: **I can challenge the claim that an electric charge smaller than the elementary charge has been isolated. **[SP 1.5, 6.1, 7.2**]

**BIG IDEA 2: Fields existing in space can be used to explain interactions.**

**2.C.1.1: **I can predict the direction and the magnitude of the force exerted on an object with an electric charge *q *placed in an electric field *E *using the mathematical model of the relation between an electric force and an electric field: = *q*; a vector relation.**[SP 6.4, 7.2**]

**2.C.1.2: **I can calculate any one of the variables —
electric force, electric charge, and electric field — at a point given
the values and sign or direction of the other two quantities.**[SP 2.2**]

**2.C.2.1: **I can qualitatively and semi-quantitatively
apply the vector relationship between the electric field and the net
electric charge creating that field. **[SP 2.2, 6.4**]

**2.C.3.1: **I can explain the inverse square dependence
of the electric field surrounding a spherically symmetric electrically
charged object. **[SP 6.2**]

**2.C.4.1: **I can distinguish the characteristics that
differ between monopole fields (gravitational field of spherical mass
and electrical field due to single point charge) and dipole fields
(electric dipole field and magnetic field) and make claims about the
spatial behavior of the fields using qualitative or semiquantitative
arguments based on vector addition of fields due to each point source,
including identifying the locations and signs of sources from a vector
diagram of the field. **[SP 2.2, 6.4, 7.2**]

**2.C.4.2: **I can apply mathematical routines to
determine the magnitude and direction of the electric field at specified
points in the vicinity of a small set (2–4) of point charges, and
express the results in terms of magnitude and direction of the field in a
visual representation by drawing field vectors of appropriate length
and direction at the specified points. **[SP 1.4, 2.2**]

**2.C.5.1: **I can create representations of the
magnitude and direction of the electric field at various distances
(small compared to plate size) from two electrically charged plates of
equal magnitude and opposite signs, and is able to recognize that the
assumption of uniform field is not appropriate near edges of plates. **[SP 1.1, 2.2**]

**2.C.5.2: **I can calculate the magnitude and determine
the direction of the electric field between two electrically charged
parallel plates, given the charge of each plate, or the electric
potential difference and plate separation. **[SP 2.2**]

**2.C.5.3:** I can represent the motion of an
electrically charged particle in the uniform field between two
oppositely charged plates and express the connection of this motion to
projectile motion of an object with mass in the Earth’s gravitational
field. **[SP 1.1, 2.2, 7.1**]

**2.E.1.1: **I can construct or interpret visual
representations of the isolines of equal gravitational potential energy
per unit mass and refer to each line as a gravitational equipotential. **[SP 1.4, 6.4, 7.2**]

**2.E.2.1: **I can determine the structure of isolines of electric potential by constructing them in a given electric field. **[SP 6.4, 7.2**]

**2.E.2.2: **I can predict the structure of isolines of
electric potential by constructing them in a given electric field and
make connections between these isolines and those found in a
gravitational field. **[SP 6.4, 7.2**]

**2.E.2.3: **I can qualitatively use the concept of
isolines to construct isolines of electric potential in an electric
field and determine the effect of that field on electrically charged
objects. **[SP 1.4**]

**2.E.3.1:** I can apply mathematical routines to
calculate the average value of the magnitude of the electric field in a
region from a description of the electric potential in that region using
the displacement along the line on which the difference in potential is
evaluated. **[SP 2.2**]

**2.E.3.2: **I can apply the concept of the isoline
representation of electric potential for a given electric charge
distribution to predict the average value of the electric field in the
region.** [SP 1.4, 6.4]**

**BIG IDEA 3: The interactions of an object with other objects can be described by forces.**

**3.A.2.1: **I can represent forces in diagrams or
mathematically using appropriately labeled vectors with magnitude,
direction, and units during the analysis of a situation. **[SP 1.1**]

**3.A.3.2: **I can challenge a claim that an object can exert a force on itself. **[SP 6.1**]

**3.A.3.3:** I can describe a force as an interaction between two objects and identify both objects for any force. **[SP 1.4]**

**3.A.3.4:** I can make claims about the force on an
object due to the presence of other objects with the same property:
mass, electric charge. **[SP** **6.1, 6.4]**

**3.A.4.1:** I can construct explanations of physical
situations involving the interaction of bodies using Newton’s third law
and the representation of action-reaction pairs of forces. **[SP** **1.4, 6.2]**

**3.A.4.2:** I can use Newton’s third law to make claims
and predictions about the action-reaction pairs of forces when two
objects interact. **[SP** **6.4, 7.2]**

**3.A.4.3:** I can analyze situations involving
interactions among several objects by using free-body diagrams that
include the application of Newton’s third law to identify forces. **[SP** **1.4]**

**3.B.1.3:** I can reexpress a free-body diagram
representation into a mathematical representation and solve the
mathematical representation for the acceleration of the object. **[SP** **1.5, 2.2]**

**3.B.1.4:** I can predict the motion of an object
subject to forces exerted by several objects using an application of
Newton’s second law in a variety of physical situations. **[SP** **6.4, 7.2]**

**3.B.2.1:** I can create and use free-body diagrams to
analyze physical situations to solve problems with motion qualitatively
and quantitatively. **[SP** **1.1, 1.4, 2.2]**

**LO 3.C.2.1:** I can use Coulomb’s law qualitatively
and quantitatively to make predictions about the interaction between two
electric point charges. **[SP 2.2, 6.4]**

**3.C.2.2: **I can connect the concepts of gravitational
force and electric force to compare similarities and differences
between the forces. **[SP** **7.2]**

**3.C.2.3: **I can use mathematics to describe the
electric force that results from the interaction of several separated
point charges (generally 2 to 4 point charges, though more are permitted
in situations of high symmetry). **[SP 2.2]**

**3.G.1.2:** I can connect the strength of the
gravitational force between two objects to the spatial scale of the
situation and the masses of the objects involved and compare that
strength to other types of forces. **[SP** **7.1]**

**LO 3.G.2.1:** I can connect the strength of
electromagnetic forces with the spatial scale of the situation, the
magnitude of the electric charges, and the motion of the electrically
charged objects involved. [**SP 7.1**]

**BIG IDEA 4: Interactions between systems can result in changes in those systems.**

**4.E.3.1:** I can make predictions about the redistribution of charge during charging by friction, conduction, and induction. **[SP** **6.4]**

**4.E.3.2: **I can make predictions about the
redistribution of charge caused by the electric field due to other
systems, resulting in charged or polarized objects. **[SP** **6.4, 7.2]**

**4.E.3.3:** I can construct a representation of the distribution of fixed and mobile charge in insulators and conductors. **[SP** **1.1, 1.4, 6.4]**

**4.E.3.4:** I can construct a representation of the
distribution of fixed and mobile charge in insulators and conductors
that predicts charge distribution in processes involving induction or
conduction. **[SP** **1.1, 1.4, 6.4]**

**4.E.3.5:** I can plan and/or analyze the results of
experiments in which electric charge rearrangement occurs by
electrostatic induction, or is able to refine a scientific question
relating to such an experiment by identifying anomalies in a data set or
procedure. **[SP** **3.2, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1, 5.3]**

**BIG IDEA 5: Changes that occur as a result of interactions are constrained by conservation laws.**

**5.A.2.1:** I can define open and closed systems for
everyday situations and apply conservation concepts for energy, charge,
and linear momentum to those situations. **[SP 6.4, 7.2**]

**5.B.2.1:** I can calculate the expected behavior of a
system using the object model (i.e., by ignoring changes in internal
structure) to analyze a situation. Then, when the model fails, the
student can justify the use of conservation of energy principles to
calculate the change in internal energy due to changes in internal
structure because the object is actually a system. **[SP 1.4, 2.1**]

**5.C.2.1:** I can predict electric charges on objects
within a system by application of the principle of charge conservation
within a system. **[SP** **6.4]**

**5.C.2.2:** I can design a plan to collect data on the
electrical charging of objects and electric charge induction on neutral
objects and qualitatively analyze that data. **[SP** **4.2, 5.1]**

**5.C.2.3: **I can justify the selection of data
relevant to an investigation of the electrical charging of objects and
electric charge induction on neutral objects. **[SP 4.1]**

**ELECTRIC CIRCUITS**

**BIG IDEA 1: Objects and systems have properties such as mass and charge. Systems may have internal structure.**

**1.E.2.1: **I can choose and justify the selection of data needed to determine resistivity for a given material. **[SP 4.1**]

**BIG IDEA 4: Interactions between systems can result in changes in those systems.**

**4.E.4.1:** I can make predictions about the properties
of resistors and/or capacitors when placed in a simple circuit, based
on the geometry of the circuit element and supported by scientific
theories and mathematical relationships. **[SP** **2.2, 6.4]**

**4.E.4.2:** I can design a plan for the collection of
data to determine the effect of changing the geometry and/or materials
on the resistance or capacitance of a circuit element and relate results
to the basic properties of resistors and capacitors. **[SP** **4.1, 4.2]**

**4.E.4.3: **I can analyze data to determine the effect
of changing the geometry and/or materials on the resistance or
capacitance of a circuit element and relate results to the basic
properties of resistors and capacitors. **[SP** **5.1]**

**4.E.5.1:** I can make and justify a quantitative
prediction of the effect of a change in values or arrangements of one or
two circuit elements on the currents and potential differences in a
circuit containing a small number of sources of emf, resistors,
capacitors, and switches in series and/or parallel. **[SP** **2.2, 6.4]**

**4.E.5.2: **I can make and justify a qualitative
prediction of the effect of a change in values or arrangements of one or
two circuit elements on currents and potential differences in a circuit
containing a small number of sources of emf, resistors, capacitors, and
switches in series and/or parallel. **[SP** **6.1, 6.4]**

**4.E.5.3:** I can plan data collection strategies and
perform data analysis to examine the values of currents and potential
differences in an electric circuit that is modified by changing or
rearranging circuit elements, including sources of emf, resistors, and
capacitors. **[SP 2.2, 4.2, 5.1**]

**BIG IDEA 5: Changes that occur as a result of interactions are constrained by conservation laws.**

**5.B.9.4:** I can analyze experimental data including
an analysis of experimental uncertainty that will demonstrate the
validity of Kirchhoff’s loop rule.**[SP** **5.1]**

**5.B.9.5:** I can use conservation of energy principles
(Kirchhoff’s loop rule) to describe and make predictions regarding
electrical potential difference, charge, and current in steady-state
circuits composed of various combinations of resistors and capacitors. **[SP** **6.4]**

**5.B.9.6:** I can mathematically express the changes in
electric potential energy of a loop in a multiloop electrical circuit
and justify this expression using the principle of the conservation of
energy. **[SP** **2.1, 2.2]**

**5.B.9.7:** I can refine and analyze a scientific
question for an experiment using Kirchhoff’s Loop rule for circuits that
includes determination of internal resistance of the battery and
analysis of a non-ohmic resistor. **[SP** **4.1, 4.2, 5.1, 5.3]**

**5.B.9.8:** I can translate between graphical and
symbolic representations of experimental data describing relationships
among power, current, and potential difference across a resistor. **[SP** **1.5]**

**5.C.3.4:** I can predict or explain current values in
series and parallel arrangements of resistors and other branching
circuits using Kirchhoff’s junction rule and relate the rule to the law
of charge conservation. **[SP** **6.4, 7.2]**

**5.C.3.5: **I can determine missing values and
direction of electric current in branches of a circuit with resistors
and NO capacitors from values and directions of current in other
branches of the circuit through appropriate selection of nodes and
application of the junction rule. **[SP** **1.4, 2.2]**

**5.C.3.6:** I can determine missing values and
direction of electric current in branches of a circuit with both
resistors and capacitors from values and directions of current in other
branches of the circuit through appropriate selection of nodes and
application of the junction rule. **[SP** **1.4, 2.2]**

**5.C.3.7:** I can determine missing values, direction
of electric current, charge of capacitors at steady state, and potential
differences within a circuit with resistors and capacitors from values
and directions of current in other branches of the circuit. **[SP 1.4, 2.2**]

**MAGNETISM AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION**

**BIG IDEA 2: Fields existing in space can be used to explain interactions.**

**2.C.4.1: **I can distinguish the characteristics that
differ between monopole fields (gravitational field of spherical mass
and electrical field due to single point charge) and dipole fields
(electric dipole field and magnetic field) and make claims about the
spatial behavior of the fields using qualitative or semiquantitative
arguments based on vector addition of fields due to each point source,
including identifying the locations and signs of sources from a vector
diagram of the field. **[SP 2.2, 6.4, 7.2**]

**2.D.1.1: **I can apply mathematical routines to express the force exerted on a moving charged object by a magnetic field. **[SP 2.2**]

**2.D.2.1: **I can create a verbal or visual representation of a magnetic field around a long straight wire or a pair of parallel wires. **[SP 1.1**]

**2.D.3.1: **I can describe the orientation of a
magnetic dipole placed in a magnetic field in general and the particular
cases of a compass in the magnetic field of the Earth and iron filings
surrounding a bar magnet. **[SP 1.2**]

**2.D.4.1: **I can use the representation of magnetic
domains to qualitatively analyze the magnetic behavior of a bar magnet
composed of ferromagnetic material. **[SP 1.4**]

**BIG IDEA 3: The interactions of an object with other objects can be described by forces.**

**3.A.2.1: **I can represent forces in diagrams or
mathematically using appropriately labeled vectors with magnitude,
direction, and units during the analysis of a situation. **[SP 1.1**]

**3.A.3.2:** I can challenge a claim that an object can exert a force on itself. **[SP** 6.1]

**3.A.3.3:** I can describe a force as an interaction between two objects and identify both objects for any force. **[SP** **1.4]**

**3.A.4.1:** I can construct explanations of physical
situations involving the interaction of bodies using Newton’s third law
and the representation of action-reaction pairs of forces. **[SP** **1.4, 6.2]**

**3.A.4.2:** I can use Newton’s third law to make claims
and predictions about the action-reaction pairs of forces when two
objects interact. **[SP** **6.4, 7.2]**

**3.A.4.3:** I can analyze situations involving
interactions among several objects by using free-body diagrams that
include the application of Newton’s third law to identify forces. **[SP** **1.4]**

**3.C.3.1:** I can use right-hand rules to analyze a
situation involving a current-carrying conductor and a moving
electrically charged object to determine the direction of the magnetic
force exerted on the charged object due to the magnetic field created by
the current-carrying conductor. **[SP** **1.4]**

**3.C.3.2:** I can plan a data collection strategy
appropriate to an investigation of the direction of the force on a
moving electrically charged object caused by a current in a wire in the
context of a specific set of equipment and instruments and analyze the
resulting data to arrive at a conclusion. **[SP** **4.2, 5.1]**

**BIG IDEA 4: Interactions between systems can result in changes in those systems.**

**4.E.1.1: **I can use representations and models to
qualitatively describe the magnetic properties of some materials that
can be affected by magnetic properties of other objects in the system. **[SP 1.1, 1.4, 2.2**]

**4.E.2.1: **I can construct an explanation of the
function of a simple electromagnetic device in which an induced emf is
produced by a changing magnetic flux through an area defined by a
current loop (i.e., a simple microphone or generator) or of the effect
on behavior of a device in which an induced emf is produced by a
constant magnetic field through a changing area. **[SP 6.4**]

**THERMODYNAMICS**

**BIG IDEA 1: Objects and systems have properties such as mass and charge. Systems may have internal structure.**

**1.E.3.1: **I can design an experiment and analyze data from it to examine thermal conductivity. **[SP 4.1, 4.2, 5.1**]

**BIG IDEA 4: Interactions between systems can result in changes in those systems.**

**4.C.3.1:** I can make predictions about the direction
of energy transfer due to temperature differences based on interactions
at the microscopic level. **[SP 6.4**]

**BIG IDEA 5: Changes that occur as a result of interactions are constrained by conservation laws.**

**5.A.2.1:** I can define open and closed systems for
everyday situations and apply conservation concepts for energy, charge,
and linear momentum to those situations. **[SP 6.4, 7.2**]

**5.B.4.1:** I can describe and make predictions about the internal energy of systems. **[SP 6.4, 7.2**]

**5.B.4.2:** I can calculate changes in kinetic energy
and potential energy of a system, using information from representations
of that system. **[SP 1.4, 2.1, 2.2**]

**5.B.5.4:** I can make claims about the interaction
between a system and its environment in which the environment exerts a
force on the system, thus doing work on the system and changing the
energy of the system (kinetic energy plus potential energy). **[SP 6.4, 7.2**]

**5.B.5.5:** I can predict and calculate the energy
transfer to (i.e., the work done on) an object or system from
information about a force exerted on the object or system through a
distance. **[SP 2.2, 6.4**]

**5.B.5.6:** I can design an experiment and analyze
graphical data in which interpretations of the area under a
pressure-volume curve are needed to determine the work done on or by the
object or system. **[SP 4.2, 5.1**]

**5.B.6.1:** I can describe the models that represent
processes by which energy can be transferred between a system and its
environment because of differences in temperature: conduction,
convection, and radiation. **[SP 1.2**]

**5.B.7.1:** I can predict qualitative changes in the
internal energy of a thermodynamic system involving transfer of energy
due to heat or work done and justify those predictions in terms of
conservation of energy principles. **[SP 6.4, 7.2**]

**5.B.7.2:** I can create a plot of pressure versus volume for a thermodynamic process from given data. **[SP 1.1**]

**5.B.7.3:** I can use a plot of pressure versus volume
for a thermodynamic process to make calculations of internal energy
changes, heat, or work, based upon conservation of energy principles
(i.e., the first law of thermodynamics). **[SP 1.1, 1.4, 2.2**]

**BIG IDEA 7: The mathematics of probability can be used to
describe the behavior of complex systems and to interpret the behavior
of quantum mechanical systems.**

**7.A.1.1**: I can make claims about how the pressure of
an ideal gas is connected to the force exerted by molecules on the
walls of the container, and how changes in pressure affect the thermal
equilibrium of the system.** [SP 6.4, 7.2]**

**7.A.1.2: **Treating a gas molecule as an object (i.e.,
ignoring its internal structure), the student is able to analyze
qualitatively the collisions with a container wall and determine the
cause of pressure, and at thermal equilibrium, to quantitatively
calculate the pressure, force, or area for a thermodynamic problem given
two of the variables.** [SP 1.4, 2.2]**

**7.A.2.1: **I can qualitatively connect the average of all kinetic energies of molecules in a system to the temperature of the system. **[SP 7.1]**

**7.A.2.2: **I can connect the statistical distribution
of microscopic kinetic energies of molecules to the macroscopic
temperature of the system and to relate this to thermodynamic processes.** [SP 7.1]**

**7.A.3.1: **I can extrapolate from pressure and
temperature or volume and temperature data to make the prediction that
there is a temperature at which the pressure or volume extrapolates to
zero. **[SP 6.4, 7.2]**

**7.A.3.2: **I can design a plan for collecting data to
determine the relationships between pressure, volume, and temperature,
and amount of an ideal gas, and to refine a scientific question
concerning a proposed incorrect relationship between the variables. **[SP 3.2, 4.2]**

**7.A.3.3:** I can analyze graphical representations of
macroscopic variables for an ideal gas to determine the relationships
between these variables and to ultimately determine the ideal gas law *PV = nRT*. **[SP 5.1]**

**7.B.1.1:** I can extrapolate from pressure and
temperature or volume and temperature data to make the prediction that
there is a temperature at which the pressure or volume extrapolates to
zero. **[SP 6.4, 7.2]**

**7.B.2.1: **I can connect qualitatively the second law
of thermodynamics in terms of the state function called entropy and how
it (entropy) behaves in reversible and irreversible processes. **[SP 7.1]**

**FLUIDS**

**1.E.1.1: **I can predict the densities, differences in
densities, or changes in densities under different conditions for
natural phenomena and design an investigation to verify the prediction. **[SP 4.2, 6.4**]

**1.E.1.2: **I can select from experimental data the
information necessary to determine the density of an object and/or
compare densities of several objects. **[SP 4.1, 6.4**]

**BIG IDEA 3: The interactions of an object with other objects can be described by forces.**

**3.C.4.1: **I can make claims about various contact forces between objects based on the microscopic cause of those forces*.* **[SP 6.1**]

**3.C.4.2:** I can explain contact forces (tension,
friction, normal, buoyant, spring) as arising from interatomic electric
forces and that they therefore have certain directions. **[SP 6.2**]

**BIG IDEA 5: Changes that occur as a result of interactions are constrained by conservation laws.**

**5.B.10.1:** I can use Bernoulli’s equation to make calculations related to a moving fluid. **[SP 2.2**]

**5.B.10.2:** I can use Bernoulli’s equation and/or the
relationship between force and pressure to make calculations related to a
moving fluid. **[SP 2.2**]

**5.B.10.3:** I can use Bernoulli’s equation and the continuity equation to make calculations related to a moving fluid. **[SP 2.2**]

**5.B.10.4:** I can construct an explanation of Bernoulli’s equation in terms of the conservation of energy. **[SP 6.2**]

**5.F.1.1:** I can make calculations of quantities
related to flow of a fluid, using mass conservation principles (the
continuity equation). **[SP 2.1, 2.2, 7.2**]

**GEOMETRIC AND PHYSICAL OPTICS**

**BIG IDEA 6: Waves can transfer energy and momentum from one
location to another without the permanent transfer of mass and serve as a
mathematical model for the description of other phenomena.**

**6.A.1.2:** I can describe representations of transverse and longitudinal waves. **[SP** **1.2]**

**6.A.1.3:** I can analyze data (or a visual
representation) to identify patterns that indicate that a particular
mechanical wave is polarized and construct an explanation of the fact
that the wave must have a vibration perpendicular to the direction of
energy propagation. **[SP** **5.1, 6.2]**

**6.A.2.2:** I can contrast mechanical and electromagnetic waves in terms of the need for a medium in wave propagation. **[SP 6.4, 7.2**]

**6.B.3.1:** I can construct an equation relating the
wavelength and amplitude of a wave from a graphical representation of
the electric or magnetic field value as a function of position at a
given time instant and vice versa, or construct an equation relating the
frequency or period and amplitude of a wave from a graphical
representation of the electric or magnetic field value at a given
position as a function of time and vice versa. **[SP 1.5**]

**6.C.1.1:** I can make claims and predictions about the
net disturbance that occurs when two waves overlap. Examples should
include standing waves. **[SP** **6.4, 7.2]**

**6.C.1.2:** I can construct representations to
graphically analyze situations in which two waves overlap over time
using the principle of superposition. **[SP** **1.4]**

**6.C.2.1:** I can make claims about the diffraction
pattern produced when a wave passes through a small opening, and to
qualitatively apply the wave model to quantities that describe the
generation of a diffraction pattern when a wave passes through an
opening whose dimensions are comparable to the wavelength of the wave. **[SP 1.4, 6.4, 7.2**]

**6.C.3.1:** I can qualitatively apply the wave model to
quantities that describe the generation of interference patterns to
make predictions about interference patterns that form when waves pass
through a set of openings whose spacing and widths are small compared to
the wavelength of the waves. **[SP 1.4, 6.4**]

**6.C.4.1:** I can predict and explain, using
representations and models, the ability or inability of waves to
transfer energy around corners and behind obstacles in terms of the
diffraction property of waves in situations involving various kinds of
wave phenomena, including sound and light. **[SP 6.4, 7.2**]

**6.E.1.1:** I can make claims using connections across
concepts about the behavior of light as the wave travels from one medium
into another, as some is transmitted, some is reflected, and some is
absorbed. **[SP 6.4, 7.2**]

**6.E.2.1:** I can make predictions about the locations
of object and image relative to the location of a reflecting surface.
The prediction should be based on the model of specular reflection with
all angles measured relative to the normal to the surface*.* **[SP 6.4, 7.2**]

**6.E.3.1:** I can describe models of light traveling
across a boundary from one transparent material to another when the
speed of propagation changes, causing a change in the path of the light
ray at the boundary of the two media. **[SP** **1.1, 1.4]**

**6.E.3.2:** I can plan data collection strategies as
well as perform data analysis and evaluation of the evidence for finding
the relationship between the angle of incidence and the angle of
refraction for light crossing boundaries from one transparent material
to another (Snell’s law). **[SP** **4.1, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3]**

**6.E.3.3:** I can make claims and predictions about
path changes for light traveling across a boundary from one transparent
material to another at non-normal angles resulting from changes in the
speed of propagation. **[SP** **6.4, 7.2]**

**LO 6.E.4.1: **I can plan data collection strategies,
and perform data analysis and evaluation of evidence about the formation
of images due to reflection of light from curved spherical mirrors.** [SP 3.2, 4.1, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3]**

**LO 6.E.4.2: **I can use quantitative and qualitative
representations and models to analyze situations and solve problems
about image formation occurring due to the reflection of light from
surfaces.** [SP 1.4, 2.2]**

**LO 6.E.5.1: **I can use quantitative and qualitative
representations and models to analyze situations and solve problems
about image formation occurring due to the refraction of light through
thin lenses. **[SSP 1.4, 2.2]**

**LO 6.E.5.2: **I can plan data collection strategies,
perform data analysis and evaluation of evidence, and refine scientific
questions about the formation of images due to refraction for thin
lenses.** [SP 3.2, 4.1, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3]**

**6.F.1.1:** I can make qualitative comparisons of the wavelengths of types of electromagnetic radiation. **[SP 6.4, 7.2**]

**6.F.2.1:** I can describe representations and models
of electromagnetic waves that explain the transmission of energy when no
medium is present*.* **[SP 1.1**]

**QUANTUM PHYSICS, ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS**

**1.A.2.1: **I can construct representations of the
differences between a fundamental particle and a system composed of
fundamental particles and to relate this to the properties and scales of
the systems being investigated. **[SP 1.1,** **7.1**]

**1.A.4.1: **I can construct representations of the
energy-level structure of an electron in an atom and to relate this to
the properties and scales of the systems being investigated. **[SP 1.1, 7.1**]

**1.C.4.1: **I can articulate the reasons that the theory of conservation of mass was replaced by the theory of conservation of mass-energy. **[SP 6.3**]

**1.D.1.1: **I can explain why classical mechanics
cannot describe all properties of objects by articulating the reasons
that classical mechanics must be refined and an alternative explanation
developed when classical particles display wave properties. **[SP 6.3**]

**1.D.3.1: **I can articulate the reasons that classical
mechanics must be replaced by special relativity to describe the
experimental results and theoretical predictions that show that the
properties of space and time are not absolute. [Students will be
expected to recognize situations in which nonrelativistic classical
physics breaks down and to explain how relativity addresses that
breakdown, but students will not be expected to know in which of two
reference frames a given series of events corresponds to a greater or
lesser time interval, or a greater or lesser spatial distance; they will
just need to know that observers in the two reference frames can
“disagree” about some time and distance intervals.] **[SP 6.3, 7.1**]

**BIG IDEA 3: The interactions of an object with other objects can be described by forces.**

**3.G.3.1:** I can identify the strong force as the force that is responsible for holding the nucleus together. **[SP 7.2**]

**BIG IDEA 4: Interactions between systems can result in changes in those systems.**

**4.C.4.1:** I can apply mathematical routines to
describe the relationship between mass and energy and apply this concept
across domains of scale. **[SP 2.2, 2.3, 7.2**]

**BIG IDEA 5: Changes that occur as a result of interactions are constrained by conservation laws.**

**5.B.8.1:** I can describe emission or absorption
spectra associated with electronic or nuclear transitions as transitions
between allowed energy states of the atom in terms of the principle of
energy conservation, including characterization of the frequency of
radiation emitted or absorbed. **[SP 1.2, 7.2**]

**5.B.11.1:** I can apply conservation of mass and conservation of energy concepts to a natural phenomenon and use the equation *E *= *mc*^{2} to make a related calculation. **[SP 2.2, 7.2**]

**5.C.1.1:** I can analyze electric charge conservation
for nuclear and elementary particle reactions and make predictions
related to such reactions based upon conservation of charge. **[SP 6.4, 7.2**]

**5.D.1.6:** I can make predictions of the dynamical
properties of a system undergoing a collision by application of the
principle of linear momentum conservation and the principle of the
conservation of energy in situations in which an elastic collision may
also be assumed. **[SP 6.4]**

**5.D.1.7:** I can classify a given collision situation
as elastic or inelastic, justify the selection of conservation of linear
momentum and restoration of kinetic energy as the appropriate
principles for analyzing an elastic collision, solve for missing
variables, and calculate their values. **[SP** **2.1, 2.2]**

**5.D.2.5: **I can classify a given collision situation
as elastic or inelastic, justify the selection of conservation of linear
momentum as the appropriate solution method for an inelastic collision,
recognize that there is a common final velocity for the colliding
objects in the totally inelastic case, solve for missing variables, and
calculate their values. **[SP 2.1, 2.2]**

**5.D.2.6:** I can apply the conservation of linear
momentum to a closed system of objects involved in an inelastic
collision to predict the change in kinetic energy. **[SP** **6.4, 7.2]**

**5.D.3.2:** I can make predictions about the velocity of the center of mass for interactions within a defined one-dimensional system. **[SP** **6.4]**

**5.D.3.3: **I can make predictions about the velocity of the center of mass for interactions within a defined two-dimensional system. **[SP** **6.4]**

**5.G.1.1:** I can apply conservation of nucleon number
and conservation of electric charge to make predictions about nuclear
reactions and decays such as fission, fusion, alpha decay, beta decay,
or gamma decay. **[SP 6.4**]

**BIG IDEA 6: Waves can transfer energy and momentum from one
location to another without the permanent transfer of mass and serve as a
mathematical model for the description of other phenomena.**

**6.F.3.1:** I can support the photon model of radiant energy with evidence provided by the photoelectric effect*.* **[SP 6.4**]

**6.F.4.1:** I can select a model of radiant energy that is appropriate to the spatial or temporal scale of an interaction with matter*.* **[SP 6.4, 7.1**]

**6.G.1.1:** I can make predictions about using the
scale of the problem to determine at what regimes a particle or wave
model is more appropriate. **[SP 6.4, 7.1**]

**6.G.2.1:** I can articulate the evidence supporting
the claim that a wave model of matter is appropriate to explain the
diffraction of matter interacting with a crystal, given conditions where
a particle of matter has momentum corresponding to a de Broglie
wavelength smaller than the separation between adjacent atoms in the
crystal. **[SP** **6.1]**

**6.G.2.2: **I can predict the dependence of major
features of a diffraction pattern (e.g., spacing between interference
maxima), based upon the particle speed and de Broglie wavelength of
electrons in an electron beam interacting with a crystal. (de Broglie
wavelength need not be given, so students may need to obtain it.) **[SP** **6.4]**

**BIG IDEA 7: The mathematics of probability can be used to
describe the behavior of complex systems and to interpret the behavior
of quantum mechanical systems.**

**7.C.1.1:** I can use a graphical wave function
representation of a particle to predict qualitatively the probability of
finding a particle in a specific spatial region. **[SP 1.4**]

**7.C.2.1:** I can use a standing wave model in which an
electron orbit circumference is an integer multiple of the de Broglie
wavelength to give a qualitative explanation that accounts for the
existence of specific allowed energy states of an electron in an atom. **[SP 1.4**]

**7.C.3.1:** I can predict the number of radioactive
nuclei remaining in a sample after a certain period of time, and also
predict the missing species (alpha, beta, gamma) in a radioactive decay.
**[SP 6.4**]

**7.C.4.1:** I can construct or interpret
representations of transitions between atomic energy states involving
the emission and absorption of photons. [For questions addressing
stimulated emission, students will not be expected to recall the details
of the process, such as the fact that the emitted photons have the same
frequency and phase as the incident photon; but given a representation
of the process, students are expected to make inferences such as
figuring out from energy conservation that since the atom loses energy
in the process, the emitted photons taken together must carry more
energy than the incident photon.] **[SP 1.1, 1.2**]